* The most important diseases of the endocrine glands, diabetes, hyperactivity and sluggishness of the thyroid gland and sexual weakness
Glucagon secretion in response to low blood sugar
Endocrine glands help secrete hormones affecting growth and metabolism
The pituitary gland controls the secretion of the body’s hormones
Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Diabetes Consultant at King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Medical City University Medical Center Dr. a decrease in the level of hormones in the body, and thus exposes the person to health problems and many diseases, including diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and impotence.
She added, in an interview with Al-Watan, that the endocrine glands have this name because they secrete all their secretions and products directly into the bloodstream instead of excreting them through ducts.
She explained that the endocrine glands help secrete hormones that play a major role in growth, reproduction and metabolism processes. She mentioned that the types of endocrine glands are the hypothalamus, pituitary, and pineal gland in the brain, the thyroid glands and parathyroid glands in the neck, the adrenal glands above the kidneys, and the gonads, “testes in men, and the ovaries in women”, and the pancreatic gland, behind the stomach in the upper abdomen.
In response to a question about the most important diseases that affect the endocrine glands, Dr. Bashayer Al-Dosari said that they depend on the gland affected and the hormone affected by this injury.
She pointed out that the most well-known diseases that affect the endocrine glands are diabetes, as well as diseases related to the thyroid gland, and the disease depends on the excessive secretion of the hormone or a deficiency in the secretion of this hormone. hormone.
She explained that if the thyroid gland does not secrete hormone in sufficient quantity, this disease is called lethargy or inactivity of the thyroid gland, or if there is an increase and excess of thyroid hormone secretion, then one Talk about hyperthyroidism. She said that the most important diseases related to the endocrine glands are the increase in the milk hormone and diseases that can affect the adrenal gland, and in this case there is an increase in the hormone cortisol. She said that there are other diseases that depend on the extent to which the gland is affected, as well as the hormone affected, and the extent to which an increase in hormone secretion or a decrease in its secretion is detected. She said the pituitary gland secretes a group of hormones and is considered to be the parent gland, which controls the secretion of the rest of the body’s hormones, as it secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenal-stimulating hormone, as well than hormones which stimulate the gonads and secretes other hormones such as growth hormone, milk hormone and hormone which prevents diuresis.And the hormone which helps contractions and contraction of the uterus , so if there is an imbalance in these hormones, either by increase or decrease, the hormone problems begin. She mentioned that the thyroid gland secretes hormones related to metabolism, temperature, and heart rate, so if there is an increase or decrease in thyroid secretions, it directly affects the aforementioned body organs.
Regarding the hormones of the parathyroid glands, she explained that they are responsible for the level of calcium in the blood. If there is an increase or a decrease in these secretions, they cause various health problems. She explained that the adrenal glands secrete many hormones, including the hormone cortisol. If there is an excess of its secretion, the patient will be more susceptible to high blood sugar, blood pressure, obesity, stretch marks in the body, as well as with osteoporosis. and moon face, where the face is full or there is flushing in the cheeks.
And considered d. Bashayer Al-Dosari said that the deficiency of cortisol hormone secretion is considered a disease, so the doctor’s ambition is always to control the level of cortisol hormone secretion in the patient’s body.
She pointed out that the pineal gland is located in the center of the brain and secretes the hormone melatonin, and works to regulate the biological clock in the body, “regulating sleep and waking.”
Regarding the reproductive glands, she explained that in men they are represented by the testicles, which secrete testosterone, and in women, by the ovaries on both sides of the uterus, which secrete female hormones. , the most important of which is estrogen.
She explained that for women, if there is an imbalance in the secretions of female hormones, it will have a negative effect on irregular menstruation and delayed pregnancy, while for men, there are difficulties in sexual intercourse. and there may be no appearance of signs. puberty in boys.
And she talked about the pancreas, where it secretes the two most important hormones, namely insulin and glucagon, to control blood glucose levels, as well as the two hormones responsible for regulating sugar levels in the blood, where the hormone insulin is secreted in response to high blood sugar levels, and the hormone Glucagon is secreted in response to hypoglycemia.
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